Friday, 11 December 2015


Grading and Reporting

Functions of Grading and Reporting Systems Improve students’ learning by:

1)clarifying instructional objectives for them

 2)showing students’ strengths & weaknesses
 3)providing information on personal-social development
 4)enhancing students’ motivation (e.g., short-term goals)
 5)indicating where teaching might be modified

 Best achieved by:

 1)day-to-day tests and feedback

 2)plus periodic integrated summaries

Types of Grading and Reporting Systems

 Traditional letter-grade system

1)Easy and can average them
 2)But of limited value when used as the sole report, because:
            - they end up being a combination of achievement, effort, work habits, behavior
            - teachers differ in how many high (or low) grades they give
 3)They are therefore hard to interpret they do not indicate patterns of strength and weakness


Assessment Procedures: Observational Technique, Peer Appraisal, and Self-Report

Anecdotal Records
  1)Determine in advance what to observe but look for a typical or unusual behavior
 2)Analyze observational records for bias
 3)Observe and record enough times to make behavior meaningful 
4)Make a record of incidents
 5)Limit anecdotal descriptions to one incident
 6)Record positive and negative behavior
 7)Collect a number of anecdotes before drawing inferences concerning what might be typical behavior
 8)Practice writing anecdotal records

Self-Report Techniques Interviews Self-reporting interviews can be useful but suffer from some major problems: 1)It is very time consuming to interview students. 2)Self-reporting assumes that the participants are honest and willing to report. Students may have self-perceptions that are not substantiated by 3)their behavior or they may be trying to answer in a way they think the interviewer wants them to. 4)Results gained, while useful for individual students, cannot usually be generalized to groups of students.