Friday, 11 December 2015


Grading and Reporting

Functions of Grading and Reporting Systems Improve students’ learning by:

1)clarifying instructional objectives for them

 2)showing students’ strengths & weaknesses
 3)providing information on personal-social development
 4)enhancing students’ motivation (e.g., short-term goals)
 5)indicating where teaching might be modified

 Best achieved by:

 1)day-to-day tests and feedback

 2)plus periodic integrated summaries

Types of Grading and Reporting Systems

 Traditional letter-grade system

1)Easy and can average them
 2)But of limited value when used as the sole report, because:
            - they end up being a combination of achievement, effort, work habits, behavior
            - teachers differ in how many high (or low) grades they give
 3)They are therefore hard to interpret they do not indicate patterns of strength and weakness


Assessment Procedures: Observational Technique, Peer Appraisal, and Self-Report

Anecdotal Records
  1)Determine in advance what to observe but look for a typical or unusual behavior
 2)Analyze observational records for bias
 3)Observe and record enough times to make behavior meaningful 
4)Make a record of incidents
 5)Limit anecdotal descriptions to one incident
 6)Record positive and negative behavior
 7)Collect a number of anecdotes before drawing inferences concerning what might be typical behavior
 8)Practice writing anecdotal records

Self-Report Techniques Interviews Self-reporting interviews can be useful but suffer from some major problems: 1)It is very time consuming to interview students. 2)Self-reporting assumes that the participants are honest and willing to report. Students may have self-perceptions that are not substantiated by 3)their behavior or they may be trying to answer in a way they think the interviewer wants them to. 4)Results gained, while useful for individual students, cannot usually be generalized to groups of students.


1.Test construction.
2. Rules for constructing essay questions.

 - Construction of test items should begin as you prepare to teach the material.
 - What do you plan for students to learn as a result of your teaching?
 - How will students be able to demonstrate they have learned the material?
 - Class time should be used to stress the material that you want students to master.

 Short-answer item is used almost exclusively to measure the recall of information.

 ADVANTAGES: 1) It is one of the easiest to construct.
2) The student must supply the answer.
1)It is restricted to the measuring of recall only.
 2)The difficulty of scoring short-answer items.

1. Restrict the use of essay questions to those learning outcomes that cannot be measured satisfactorily by objective items.
2. Construct questions that will call forth the behavior specified in the learning outcomes.
3. Phrase the question so that the student's task is clearly indicated.
 4. Indicate an approximate time limit for each question.
 5. Avoid the use of optional questions.


Test Construction

Step One
 1)Construction of test items should begin as you prepare to teach the material.
 2)What do you plan for students to learn as a result of your teaching? 
3)How will students be able to demonstrate they have learned the material?
 4)Class time should be used to stress the material that you want students to master.

Types of Test Items
True – False
Short Answers
Fill in the Blanks

Some limitations that you need to keep in mind are
 (a) the student has a 50/50 chance of guessing the answer,
 (b) it is best for testing knowledge level objectives.
 (c) an incorrect answer gives no information about the students problem.


In week six, we have learned about plannng classroom. Types of Reliability: 1) Stability over time (test-retest): Scores on a test will be highly corellated with scores on a second administration of the test to the same subjects at a later date if the test has good test-retest reliability. 2) Stability over item samples (equivalent or parallel forms): Some tests have two or more forms. Scores on parallel forms should highly correlate.

Easy to score
Simple to take
Poor writers not penalized
Good items used again
Good distracters are diagnostic
Hard to fake correct answer

Limit student’s options
No opportunity to practice writing
Some people don’t do well on them
Limits content to be assessed

Items must be well written


In week four, we have learned about Instructional Goals and Objectives (Foundation for Assessment) Purposes of goal and objective divided by three which is Provide direction for instruction, Convey instructional intent to others, and Provide basis for student assessment. Stating general instructional objectives 1) Begin with a verb and state them in terms of student performance at the end of instruction Example: Understands the meaning of concepts 2) Stating specific learning outcomes State them using action verbs and keep them content-free Example: Distinguishes between proper and improper instance of a concept What are Goal? Goals are broad, generalized statements about what is to be learned. Think of them as a target to be reached, or hit. What are Instructional Objectives? Instructional objectives: specific, measurable, short-term, observable student behaviors can build lessons and assessments that can prove meet overall course or lesson goals tools use to reach goals arrows shoot towards target (goal) The purpose of objectives: to ensure that learning is focused clearly enough that both students and teacher know what is going on, and so learning can be objectively measured.


In week three, we have learn about learning objectives. The objective of the course is to assist students to be able to: 1)Demonstrate the educational testing, evaluation and assessment and discuss issues and trends in assessment 2)Demonstrate the roles of assessment, instructional goals and learning outcomes in teaching & learning and assessment 3)Demonstrate the to explain reliability, validity and other desired characteristics of measurement, and plan classroom assessment 4)Demonstrate the construct objective & subjective test items, and items to measure complex learning outcomes 5)Develop assessment procedures and administering, analysis, grading and reporting of classroom assessment. Another else, course policy. In course policy, students are required to abide by the university’s Academic Regulation pertaining to all matters during their course of study. Learners are advised to take note that class attendance is very important. Learners who do not meet the attendance requirement will be barred from sitting for the final examination. Course content nclude 1)Educational Testing, Evaluation and Assessment Context, Roles of Assessment in Teaching and Learning. 2)Instructional Goals and Learning Outcomes: Foundations for Assessment. 3)Reliability, Validity and Other Desired Characteristics of Measurement. 4)Planning Classroom Assessment: Test and Evaluation 5)Constructing Objective Test Items: Simple Forms & Multiple-Choice Forms. 6)Constructing Subjective Test Items: Structured Forms & Essay Forms. 7)Measuring Complex Achievement: The Interpretive Exercise’ Performance Based Assessment. 8)Assessment Procedures: Observational Techniques, Peer Appraisal and Self-Report. 9)Assembling, Administering and Appraising Classroom Tests and Assessments 10)Analysis, Grading and Reporting


In week five, we have learned about test considerations. Which is include deciding on a method, tests and their development, types of test, observational techniques and questionnaire. Some important first considerations is the tool you propose to use reliable and valid? Base your choice of research tools on how you have asked the research question. For test and their their development refer to a test should measure the nature and extent of individual differences and a good test differentiates people based on true scores. Why use test? To help determine outcomes of experiments, can be used to diagnose strengths and weaknesses, assist in placing individuals in appropriate programs, assist in selecting applicants and used to evaluate a program’s effectiveness. While types of test, there have achievement test sources. Which is have Standardized is to commercially prepared for wide use and scoring instructions included. Another else is Researcher-made, designed by user for specific purpose and scoring instructions specific to test. What Comparison Do Tests Make? First, norm-referenced refer individual’s scores are compared to results from a larger group. Second, Criterion-reference refer to individual’s scores are compared to defined performance standards. Another else, Qualities of a Good Test or Inventory. Which is have Reliability. Reliability refer to a test is reliable to the extent that it measures whatever it is measuring consistently. Reliable tests are stable in whatever they measure and yield comparable scores upon repeated administration. In tests that have a high coefficient of reliability, errors of measurement have been reduced to a minimum.